Diplomatic sources said Clinton and Davutoğlu stressed the importance of de-escalating tensions in the region by taking steps.
Israel exchanged the fiercest fire with Hamas in years after assassinating its military mastermind and threatening a wider offensive in the Gaza Strip to stem Palestinian rocket salvoes.
Launched on Wednesday during a deceptive lull in almost a week of surging cross-border violence, Israel's air assault had an intensity recalling the outset of the 2008-2009 Gaza war. The Palestinian death toll was 13 while three Israelis killed.
Davutoğlu and Clinton also discussed the latest situation in Syria and Turkish-Syrian border tensions.
Turkey sent fighter jets to its southeastern frontier with Syria for a second day on Thursday, following an air assault this week by Syrian warplanes on the opposition-held border town of Ras al-Ain.