Protesters from two separate groups, one an Islamist organisation and the other a workers' party, carried banners including one which read "Murderer America! Get out of Turkey!"
Riot police armed with water cannons blocked the road outside the embassy, keeping the protesters around 100 metres (yards) from its walls, and the group dispersed in less than an hour.
Fury about the amateurish film of obscure origin tore across the Middle East after weekly prayers on Friday with protesters attacking US embassies and burning American flags. The violence largely subsided on Saturday but the Pentagon has bolstered security at its missions in the region.
Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party (AK Party), in power for the past decade, has conservative roots but the country has a strong secular tradition and protests against the United States have been peaceful and on a far smaller scale than in other parts of the Middle East.
Sunday's protest coincided with a visit to Turkey by General Martin Dempsey, the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is expected to discuss the crisis in neighbouring Syria and Turkey's domestic security with his Turkish counterparts.